Land Value Taxation will solve many of the 21st century's most serious social, economic and environmental problems, and promote justice, fairness and sustainability. We CAN have a world in which all can prosper.
Progress and Poverty, by Henry George Here are links to online editions of George's landmark book, Progress & Poverty, including audio and a number of abridgments -- the shortest is 30 words! I commend this book to your attention, if you are concerned about economic justice, poverty, sprawl, energy use, pollution, wages, housing affordability. Its observations will change how you approach all these problems. A mind-opening experience!
Henry George: Progress and Poverty: An inquiry into the cause of industrial depressions and of increase of want with increase of wealth ... The Remedy This is perhaps the most important book ever written on the subjects of poverty, political economy, how we might live together in a society dedicated to the ideals Americans claim to believe are self-evident. It will provide you new lenses through which to view many of our most serious problems and how we might go about solving them: poverty, sprawl, long commutes, despoilation of the environment, housing affordability, wealth concentration, income concentration, concentration of power, low wages, etc. Read it online, or in hardcopy.
Bob Drake's abridgement of Henry George's original: Progress and Poverty: Why There Are Recessions and Poverty Amid Plenty -- And What To Do About It! This is a very readable thought-by-thought updating of Henry George's longer book, written in the language of a newsweekly. A fine way to get to know Henry George's ideas. Available online at progressandpoverty.org and http://www.henrygeorge.org/pcontents.htm
Where Else Might You Look?
Wealth and Want The URL comes from the subtitle to Progress & Poverty -- and the goal is widely shared prosperity in the 21st century. How do we get there from here? A roadmap and a reference source.
Reforming the Property Tax for the Common Good I'm a tax reform activist who seeks to promote fairness and reduce poverty. Let's start with the enabling legislation and state requirements for the property tax. There are opportunities for great good!
Why on earth would we-the-people sellassets such as this instead of leasingthem, producing an income that would benefit future generations??? That would be Natural Public Revenue.
The value of that acreage will rise over time. Why will that be private, or corporate, gain, rather than public gain??
U.S. Government Sells 400,000 Acres in Gulf
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS AUG. 20, 2014
The federal government has sold more than 400,000 acres in the Gulf of Mexico off the Texas coast for oil and gas exploration and development, an official with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management said Wednesday. The acreage represents a small fraction of the 21.6 million acres the agency had offered as part of a five-year program to develop resources on the outer continental shelf. Offerings since 2012 in the western Gulf attracted buyers for about 60 million offshore acres, adding about $2.3 billion to the Treasury. Wednesday’s sales, if approved, will bring in about $110 million. BP submitted the largest number of high bids, winning 27 of the 81 tracts that sold. It was the first sale in the western Gulf for BP since it was barred from such auctions after the 2010 oil spill. Conoco Philips spent the most of the 93 bidders in the sale, paying about $61 million for a tract in the ultra-deep-water Alaminos Canyon area.
I posted this comment elsewhere, and thought it worth sharing here:
I've not read far into the book yet -- and it is available online as a PDF file -- but by the time I was into the first chapter, it was clear that Dr. Piketty's economic education, extensive as it might be, entirely omitted the ideas of the classical economists who described a 3-factor economy: land, labor and capital. Piketty, like nearly everyone educated in economics in the past 40 to 80 years, writes as if there were only two factors -- labor and capital -- treating land as if it were a mere subset of capital, with no reason to recognize it as differentiated.
Land -- not only urban sites, but also the other things the classical economists would recognize as Land, such as water rights, oil, electromagnetic spectrum (our airwaves which we all say belong to the American people, but which are in reality owned by corporations), landing rights at busy landlocked airports, geosynchronous orbits, urban street parking, the value of dozens of other non-renewable natural resources -- is completely different in character from that which is created by labor. To fail to recognize that difference lies at the bottom of our inequality problem.
That which individuals and corporations produce is rightly individual property. That which the community and nature produce is rightly common property, belonging to all of us. Conflating Capital and Land leads us to permit the privatization of that which is rightly our common treasure.
You might be interested to know that the Landlord Game, invented by 1902, was intended to teach this concept. You have probably played Monopoly, which was based on this game, played with very different rules.
Explore the ideas of Henry George. Between 1885 and 1900 or so, everyone knew the name and many well understood his ideas. You might start with "Social Problems" or the more analytical "Progress and Poverty," or his speeches, "The Crime of Poverty," "Thou Shalt Not Steal," among others, online at http://www.wealthandwant.com. See also http://lvtfan.typepad.com.
Dr. Piketty and others whose education in economics has omitted George's ideas should not be treated as experts; they've mixed apples and oranges and not noticed that what they've created impoverishes the vast majority of us -- and enriches a few. (Parenthetically, consider who donates heavily to our universities.)
Interesting comments on a number of things, including doctors, slaves, soldiers, income inequality, sobriety, thrift, poverty,
Bad as we are, I believe that if we all understood how we are living,
and what we are doing daily, we should make a revolution before the end
of the week. But as we do not know; and as many of us, forseeing
unpleasant revelations, do not want to know; I can only assure you that I
am in perfect concord with standard economists when I state that
competition is the force that makes our industrial system self-acting.
It produces the effects which I have described without the conscious
contrivance or interference of either master on the one hand, or slave
on the other. It may be described as a seesaw, or lever of the first
order, having the fulcrum between the power and the weight.
The so-called right of private property is a convention that every man
should enjoy the product of his own labour, either to consume it or
exchange it for the equivalent product of his fellow labourer. But the
landlord and capitalist enjoy the product of the labour of others, which
they consume to the value of many millions sterling every year without
even a pretence of producing an equivalent. They daily violate the right to which they appeal when the socialist
attacks them. Nor is their inconsistency so obvious as might be
expected. If you violate a workman's right daily for centuries, and
daily respect the landlord's right, the workman's right will at last be
forgotten, whilst the landlord's right will appear more sacred as
successive years add to its antiquity. In this way the most illogical
distinctions come to be accepted as natural and inevitable. One man
enters a farmhouse secretly, helps himself to a share of the farm
produce, and leaves without giving the farmer an equivalent. We call him
a burglar, and send him to penal servitude. Another man does precisely
the same thing openly, has the impudence even to send a note to say when
he is coming, and repeats his foray twice a year, breaking forcibly
into the premises if his demand is not complied with. We call him a
landlord, respect him, and, if his freebooting extends over a large
district, make him deputy-lieutenant of the country or send him to
Parliament, to make laws to license his predatory habits.
I BELIEVE that in a really Christian community, in a society
that honored, not with the lips but with the act, the
doctrines of Jesus, no one would have occasion to worry
about physical needs any more than do the lilies of the
field. There is enough and to spare. The trouble is that, in
this mad struggle, we trample in the mire what has been
provided in sufficiency for us all; trample it in the mire
while we tear and rend each other. — The Crime of Poverty
LIFE does not use up the forces that maintain
life. We come into the material universe bringing nothing;
we take nothing away when we depart. The human being,
physically considered, is but a transient form of matter, a
changing mode of motion. The matter remains and the force
persists. Nothing is lessened, nothing is weakened. And from
this it follows that the limit to the population of the
globe can only be the limit of space. — Progress & Poverty — Book II,
Chapter 3: Population and Subsistence: Inferences from
read the corresponding passage in Bob Drake's abridgement ...
THAT man cannot exhaust or lessen the powers of nature
follows from the indestructibility of matter and the
persistence of force. Production and consumption are only
relative terms. Speaking absolutely, man neither produces
nor consumes. The whole human race, were they to labor to
infinity, could not make this rolling sphere one atom
heavier or one atom lighter, could not add to or diminish by
one iota the sum of the forces whose everlasting circling
produces all motion and sustains all life. As the water that
we take from the ocean must again return to the ocean, so
the food we take from the reservoirs of nature is, from the
moment we take it, on its way back to those reservoirs. What
we draw from a limited extent of land may temporarily reduce
the productiveness of that land, because the return may be
to other land, or may be divided between that land and other
land, or perhaps, all land; but this possibility lessens
with increasing area, and ceases when the whole globe is
considered. —Progress & Poverty — Book II,
Chapter 3: Population and Subsistence: Inferences from
read the corresponding section in Bob Drake's abridgement ...
What is this you
call property? It cannot be the earth, for the land is our mother,
nourishing all her children, beasts, birds, fish and all men. The
woods, the streams, everything on it belongs to everybody and is
for the use of all. How can one man say it belongs only to him?
Timon: Why should you want? Behold, the earth hath roots;
Within this mile break forth a hundred springs;
The oaks bear mast, the briers scarlet hips;
The bounteous housewife, Nature, on each bush
Lays her fullness before you. Want! Why want ?
—Shakspere: "Timon of Athens," Act IV., Scene 3.
Timon: Common mother, thou, (digging)
Whose womb unmeasureable, and infinite breast
Teems and feeds all.
They sing of the golden Sigurd, and the face without a foe,
And the lowly man exalted, and the mighty brought alow;
And they say, when the sun of summer shall come aback to the land,
It shall shine on the fields of the tiller that fears no heavy hand;
That the sheaf shall be for the plougher and the loaf for him that
Through every furrowed acre where the son of Sigurd rode.
—William Morris, "Story of Sigurd, the Volsung," Book III, p. 203.
I should have thought the question about raising rents had been,
to your own knowledge, enough answered by me. I have in several, if
not in many places, declared the entire system of rent-paying to be
an abomination and wickedness of the foulest kind, and have only
ceased insisting on that fact of late years, because I would not be
counted among the promoters of mob violence. The future, not only of
England, but of Christendom, must issue in abolition of rents, but
whether with confusion or slaughter, or by action of noble and
resolute men in the rising generation of England and her colonies,
remains to be decided. I fear the worst, and that soon.
They had so long held the Swamp and felt it to be their very own
in every part and suburb, . . . that they would have resented the
appearance of another rabbit even about the adjoining barnyard.
Their claim, that of long, successful occupancy, was exactly the
same as that by which most nations hold their land, and it would be
hard to find a better right.
—Ernest Thompson Seton, "Wild Animals I Have Known."
"Raggylug," Chapter VIII.
"The Lord's Prayer says, Give us this day our daily bread. Our
daily bread comes from the land. No man made the land. It is God's
gift to mankind. It belongs to all men. Therefore individual
ownership of land is wrong. Individual control of the fruits of the
land is wrong."
God has made the rich and the poor of the same clay and one
earth bears them both. It is through emperors and kings of the world
that God gives the human law of the human race. Take away the law of
the emperors and who shall dare to say, "This villa is mine?"
On a sudden the commonalty rose one and all, and encouraging
each other, they left the city, and withdrew to the hill not called
Sacred, near the river Anio, but without committing any
violence, or other act of sedition. Only as they went along, they
loudly complained, that it was now a great while since the rich had
driven them from their habitations; that Italy would anywhere supply
them with air and water and a place of burial; and that Rome, if
they stayed in it, would afford them no other privilege, unless it
were to bleed and die for their wealthy oppressors.
The fate of empires, and the fortunes of their peoples, depend
upon the condition of the proprietorship of land to an extent which
is not at all understood in this country. We are a servile,
aristocracy-loving, lord-ridden people, who regard the land with as
much reverence as we still do the peerage and the baronetage. Not
only have not nineteen-twentieths of us any share in the soil, but
we have not presumed to think that we are worthy to possess a few
acres of mother earth.
The hospitals (of England) are full of the ancient. . . . The
almshouses are filled with old laborers. Many there are who get
their living with bearing burdens, but more are fain to burden the
land with their whole bodies. Neither come these straits upon men
always through intemperance, ill-husbandry, indiscretion, etc.; but
even the most wise, sober and discreet men go often to the wall when
they have done their best. . . The rent-taker lives on the sweet
morsels, but the rent-payer eats a dry crust often with watery eyes.
—Robert Cushman, Plymouth, 1621, in Young's "Chronicles of the
As soon as I see landed property established, then I see unequal
fortunes, and from these unequal fortunes must there not necessarily
result different and opposed interests, all the vices of riches, all
the vices of poverty, the brutalisation, the corruption of civil
—Jean Jacques Rousseau, "Douies sur L'Otdre Naturel."
The only point where I do not find myself in complete accord (and
that is perhaps more due to your comparative silence than anything
else) is that I attach relatively more importance to the initial
injustice done by the permitted monopoly of raw material in a few
hands. It seems to me that individualism, in order to be just, must
strive hard for an equalisation of original conditions by the
removal of all artificial advantages. The great reservoir of natural
wealth that we sum up as land (including mines, etc.) ought, it
seems to me, to be nationalised before we can say that the
individual is allowed fair play. While he is thwarted in obtaining
his fair share of the raw material, he is being put at a
disadvantage by artificial laws.
—Grant Allen, Letter to Herbert Spencer, 1886, in "Grant Allen, A
Memoir," by Edward Clodd.
In our society, established upon a very rigorous idea of
property, the position of the poor man is horrible; he has literally
no place under the sun. There are no flowers, no shade, no grass but
for him who possesses the earth. In the East these are the gifts of
God, which belong to no man. The proprietor has but a slender
privilege; nature is the patrimony of all.
Third Fisherman: Master, I marvel how the fishes live in the sea.
First Fisherman: Why, as men do a land. The great ones eat up the
little ones. I can compare our rich misers to nothing so fitly as to
a whale , 'a plays and tumbles, driving the poor fry before him, and
at last devours them all at a mouthful; such whales have I heard on
o' the land, who never leave gaping till they have swallowed the
whole parish, church, steeple, bells and all. . . .
Third Fisherman: If the good King Simonides were of my mind, he
would purge the land of these drones that rob the bee of her honey.
—Shakspere, "Pericles, Prince of Tyre," Act II, Scene 1.
An ebay alert for the Crosby "Earth-for-All Calendar" -- which I've had for many years -- finally showed a copy of it (almost 2 years after I got a scan of a copy). But I'll post it here in case a reader is interested.
Oh, you queens, you queens! Among the hills and happy greenwood
of this land of yours, shall the foxes have holes, and the birds of
the air have nests; and in the cities shall the stones cry out
against you, that they are the only pillows where the Son of Man can
lay his head?
—Ruskin, "Sesame and Lilies," "Queens' Gardens," Sec. 95.
But for this, I say,
And but for selfish getting of the land,
And beggarly entailing it, we two,
Today well fed, well grown, well dressed, well read,
We might have been two horny-handed boors,—
Lean, clumsy, ignorant, and ragged boors,—
Planning for moonlight nights a poaching scheme,
Or soiling our dull souls and consciences
With plans for pilfering a cottage roost.
How long shall we covet and oppress, enlarge our possessions and
account that too little which was formerly enough for a nation? . .
. A bull contents himself with one meadow, and one forest is enough
for a thousand elephants; but the little body of man devours more
than all other living creatures.
—Seneca, "Morals." Translation of Walter Clode, Chapter II.
Duke of Suffolk (reading petition): What's here? "Against the
Duke of Suffolk for enclosing the commons of Hebford." How now, sir
Petitioner: Alas, sir, I am but a poor petitioner of our whole
—Shakspere, Henry VI., Second Part, Act 1, Scene 3.
The soil was given to rich and poor in common. Wherefore, O ye
rich, do you unjustly claim it for yourselves alone?
—Hildebrand, Pope Gregory the Great.
(See also March 11)
Hmmm. Googling this, it appears to be from St. Ambrose. (See December 21 for another):
Upton Sinclair, ed. (1878–1968). The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest. 1915.
The Voice of the Early Church. V.
By St. Ambrose
HOW far, O rich, do you extend your senseless avarice? Do you intend to be the sole inhabitants of the earth? Why do you drive out the fellow sharers of nature, and claim it all for yourselves? The earth was made for all, rich and poor, in common. Why do you rich claim it as your exclusive right? The soil was given to the rich and poor in common—wherefore, oh, ye rich, do you unjustly claim it for yourselves alone? Nature gave all things in common for the use of all; usurpation created private rights. Property hath no rights. The earth is the Lord’s, and we are his offspring. The pagans hold earth as property. They do blaspheme God.
Well, we've completed a year of the "Earth-for-All Calendar." (See the original explanatory post here.) There have been about 430 quotes, all pointing in the direction of the wisdom and justice of the earth being for ALL.
Ernest Crosby, after publishing the book, turned up an additional month's worth of quotes, which I will publish as Undecimber (with honors to my Latin teachers, Mrs. Yost, Miss Deitz, Mr. Ferry and Miss Basehore! My source for the thirteenth month is the July 15, 1902, edition of The Single Tax Review.
The soil of all countries belongs evermore in a very considerable
degree to the Almighty Maker.
— THOMAS CARLYLE, Past and
Present, Book III., Chap. 8
As He who first founded the earth was then the true proprietor of
it, so He still remains, and though He hath given it to the children
of men, so that multitudes of people have had their sustenance from
it while they continued here, yet He hath never alienated it, but
His right is as good as at first; nor can any apply the increase of
their possessions contrary to universal love, nor dispose of lands
in a way which they know tends to exalt some by oppressing others
without being justly chargeable with usurpation.
—JOHN WOOLMAN, A Word of
Remembrance and Caution to the Rich, (1771), Sec. X.
If, then, successive generations of men cannot have their fractional
share of the actual soil (including mines, etc.) how can the
division of the advantages of the natural earth be effected? By the
division of its annual value or rent; that is, by making the rent of
the soil the common property of the nation. That is (as the taxation
is the common property of the State), by taking the whole of the
taxes out of the rents of the soil, and thereby abolishing all other
kinds of taxation whatever. And thus all industry would be
absolutely emancipated from every burden.
— PATRICK EDWARD DOVE, Theory of
Human Progression (1850), Chap. III., Sec. 3.
In a letter to the President of Congress, July 22, 1782, (Robert)
Morris said that a large part of America was held by great
landowners and that a land tax would have the salutary effect of an
agrarian law without the iniquity.
— PROFESSOR WILLIAM C. SUMNER, The
Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution, Vol. II.,
Chap. 33, p. 251.
It is well known that vile and loathsome buildings, probably the
property of some opulent landowner, yield from the misery of their
inmates a far larger rent than the plots on which the most luxurious
and convenient mansions are built. Dives is clothed in purple and
fine linen and fares sumptuously every day from the crumbs which he
sweeps out of the wallet of Lazarus.
— PROFESSOR THOROLD ROGERS, Work
and Wages, Chap. XV., p. 426.
The land question . . . means hunger, thirst, nakedness, notice to
quit, labor spent in vain, the toil of years seized upon, the
breaking up of homes, the miseries, sicknesses, deaths of parents,
children, wives; the despair and wildness which spring up in the
hearts of the poor, when legal force, like a sharp harrow, goes over
the most sensitive and vital right of mankind. All this is contained
in the land question.
— CARDINAL MANNING, Letter to Earl
Grey (1868), Miscellanies, Vol. I.; p. 251
Millions of human creatures are housed worse than the cattle and
horses of many a lord or squire. Nearly, a million of the London
poor need re-housing; the medical authority has reported against
141,000 houses as insanitary, in which the poor are huddled
together, in numbers varying from four to twelve and more in a
single room. What delicacy, modesty or self-respect can be expected
in men and women whose bodies are so shamefully packed together?
— CARDINAL VAUGHAN, Inaugural
Address to the Annual Conference of the Catholic Truth Society at
Stockport, published in the St. Vincent de Paul Quarterly, New
York, November, 1892, p 286.
"Yes, ah yes, there is frightful misery in the world," answered
Gabriel tenderly and sadly. "Yes, many of the poor, cut off
from all joy, all hope, are cold and hungry and in want of shelter
and raiment, in the midst of the immense riches which the Creator
has provided, not for the happiness of a few, but for the happiness
of all, for his wish was that they should be equitably divided — but
a few have acquired the common inheritance by fraud and violence."
— EUGENE SUE, The Wandering Jew,
Part XVI., Chap. 34.
Look hence, ye wretched ones, upon those blessed fields ye now flit
through as thralls, as aliens. Free shall ye wander there, free from
the yoke of the living, free from the chains of the dead. What
Nature made, what men have tilled and turned into a fruitful garden,
belongs to men, the needy,
and none shall come and say, "To me
alone belongs all this; ye are but guests I tolerate so long
as I may please, and they shall yield me tribute, guests I drive
forth when so inclined. To me belongs
what Nature made, what Man has wrought, and the living needs."
Away with that lie; to Need alone
belongs what satisfies it, and such is offered in abundance
by Nature and your own strong arm.
— RICHARD WAGNER, The Revolution,
Prose Works, Vol. VIII., Chap. 14, p. 235. (Translation of
W. A. Ellis.)