Land Value Taxation will solve many of the 21st century's most serious social, economic and environmental problems, and promote justice, fairness and sustainability. We CAN have a world in which all can prosper.
Progress and Poverty, by Henry George Here are links to online editions of George's landmark book, Progress & Poverty, including audio and a number of abridgments -- the shortest is 30 words! I commend this book to your attention, if you are concerned about economic justice, poverty, sprawl, energy use, pollution, wages, housing affordability. Its observations will change how you approach all these problems. A mind-opening experience!
Henry George: Progress and Poverty: An inquiry into the cause of industrial depressions and of increase of want with increase of wealth ... The Remedy This is perhaps the most important book ever written on the subjects of poverty, political economy, how we might live together in a society dedicated to the ideals Americans claim to believe are self-evident. It will provide you new lenses through which to view many of our most serious problems and how we might go about solving them: poverty, sprawl, long commutes, despoilation of the environment, housing affordability, wealth concentration, income concentration, concentration of power, low wages, etc. Read it online, or in hardcopy.
Bob Drake's abridgement of Henry George's original: Progress and Poverty: Why There Are Recessions and Poverty Amid Plenty -- And What To Do About It! This is a very readable thought-by-thought updating of Henry George's longer book, written in the language of a newsweekly. A fine way to get to know Henry George's ideas. Available online at progressandpoverty.org and http://www.henrygeorge.org/pcontents.htm
Where Else Might You Look?
Wealth and Want The URL comes from the subtitle to Progress & Poverty -- and the goal is widely shared prosperity in the 21st century. How do we get there from here? A roadmap and a reference source.
Reforming the Property Tax for the Common Good I'm a tax reform activist who seeks to promote fairness and reduce poverty. Let's start with the enabling legislation and state requirements for the property tax. There are opportunities for great good!
I BELIEVE that in a really Christian community, in a society
that honored, not with the lips but with the act, the
doctrines of Jesus, no one would have occasion to worry
about physical needs any more than do the lilies of the
field. There is enough and to spare. The trouble is that, in
this mad struggle, we trample in the mire what has been
provided in sufficiency for us all; trample it in the mire
while we tear and rend each other. — The Crime of Poverty
LIFE does not use up the forces that maintain
life. We come into the material universe bringing nothing;
we take nothing away when we depart. The human being,
physically considered, is but a transient form of matter, a
changing mode of motion. The matter remains and the force
persists. Nothing is lessened, nothing is weakened. And from
this it follows that the limit to the population of the
globe can only be the limit of space. — Progress & Poverty — Book II,
Chapter 3: Population and Subsistence: Inferences from
read the corresponding passage in Bob Drake's abridgement ...
THAT man cannot exhaust or lessen the powers of nature
follows from the indestructibility of matter and the
persistence of force. Production and consumption are only
relative terms. Speaking absolutely, man neither produces
nor consumes. The whole human race, were they to labor to
infinity, could not make this rolling sphere one atom
heavier or one atom lighter, could not add to or diminish by
one iota the sum of the forces whose everlasting circling
produces all motion and sustains all life. As the water that
we take from the ocean must again return to the ocean, so
the food we take from the reservoirs of nature is, from the
moment we take it, on its way back to those reservoirs. What
we draw from a limited extent of land may temporarily reduce
the productiveness of that land, because the return may be
to other land, or may be divided between that land and other
land, or perhaps, all land; but this possibility lessens
with increasing area, and ceases when the whole globe is
considered. —Progress & Poverty — Book II,
Chapter 3: Population and Subsistence: Inferences from
read the corresponding section in Bob Drake's abridgement ...
What is this you
call property? It cannot be the earth, for the land is our mother,
nourishing all her children, beasts, birds, fish and all men. The
woods, the streams, everything on it belongs to everybody and is
for the use of all. How can one man say it belongs only to him?
Timon: Why should you want? Behold, the earth hath roots;
Within this mile break forth a hundred springs;
The oaks bear mast, the briers scarlet hips;
The bounteous housewife, Nature, on each bush
Lays her fullness before you. Want! Why want ?
—Shakspere: "Timon of Athens," Act IV., Scene 3.
Timon: Common mother, thou, (digging)
Whose womb unmeasureable, and infinite breast
Teems and feeds all.
They sing of the golden Sigurd, and the face without a foe,
And the lowly man exalted, and the mighty brought alow;
And they say, when the sun of summer shall come aback to the land,
It shall shine on the fields of the tiller that fears no heavy hand;
That the sheaf shall be for the plougher and the loaf for him that
Through every furrowed acre where the son of Sigurd rode.
—William Morris, "Story of Sigurd, the Volsung," Book III, p. 203.
I should have thought the question about raising rents had been,
to your own knowledge, enough answered by me. I have in several, if
not in many places, declared the entire system of rent-paying to be
an abomination and wickedness of the foulest kind, and have only
ceased insisting on that fact of late years, because I would not be
counted among the promoters of mob violence. The future, not only of
England, but of Christendom, must issue in abolition of rents, but
whether with confusion or slaughter, or by action of noble and
resolute men in the rising generation of England and her colonies,
remains to be decided. I fear the worst, and that soon.
They had so long held the Swamp and felt it to be their very own
in every part and suburb, . . . that they would have resented the
appearance of another rabbit even about the adjoining barnyard.
Their claim, that of long, successful occupancy, was exactly the
same as that by which most nations hold their land, and it would be
hard to find a better right.
—Ernest Thompson Seton, "Wild Animals I Have Known."
"Raggylug," Chapter VIII.
"The Lord's Prayer says, Give us this day our daily bread. Our
daily bread comes from the land. No man made the land. It is God's
gift to mankind. It belongs to all men. Therefore individual
ownership of land is wrong. Individual control of the fruits of the
land is wrong."
God has made the rich and the poor of the same clay and one
earth bears them both. It is through emperors and kings of the world
that God gives the human law of the human race. Take away the law of
the emperors and who shall dare to say, "This villa is mine?"
On a sudden the commonalty rose one and all, and encouraging
each other, they left the city, and withdrew to the hill not called
Sacred, near the river Anio, but without committing any
violence, or other act of sedition. Only as they went along, they
loudly complained, that it was now a great while since the rich had
driven them from their habitations; that Italy would anywhere supply
them with air and water and a place of burial; and that Rome, if
they stayed in it, would afford them no other privilege, unless it
were to bleed and die for their wealthy oppressors.
The fate of empires, and the fortunes of their peoples, depend
upon the condition of the proprietorship of land to an extent which
is not at all understood in this country. We are a servile,
aristocracy-loving, lord-ridden people, who regard the land with as
much reverence as we still do the peerage and the baronetage. Not
only have not nineteen-twentieths of us any share in the soil, but
we have not presumed to think that we are worthy to possess a few
acres of mother earth.
The hospitals (of England) are full of the ancient. . . . The
almshouses are filled with old laborers. Many there are who get
their living with bearing burdens, but more are fain to burden the
land with their whole bodies. Neither come these straits upon men
always through intemperance, ill-husbandry, indiscretion, etc.; but
even the most wise, sober and discreet men go often to the wall when
they have done their best. . . The rent-taker lives on the sweet
morsels, but the rent-payer eats a dry crust often with watery eyes.
—Robert Cushman, Plymouth, 1621, in Young's "Chronicles of the
As soon as I see landed property established, then I see unequal
fortunes, and from these unequal fortunes must there not necessarily
result different and opposed interests, all the vices of riches, all
the vices of poverty, the brutalisation, the corruption of civil
—Jean Jacques Rousseau, "Douies sur L'Otdre Naturel."
The only point where I do not find myself in complete accord (and
that is perhaps more due to your comparative silence than anything
else) is that I attach relatively more importance to the initial
injustice done by the permitted monopoly of raw material in a few
hands. It seems to me that individualism, in order to be just, must
strive hard for an equalisation of original conditions by the
removal of all artificial advantages. The great reservoir of natural
wealth that we sum up as land (including mines, etc.) ought, it
seems to me, to be nationalised before we can say that the
individual is allowed fair play. While he is thwarted in obtaining
his fair share of the raw material, he is being put at a
disadvantage by artificial laws.
—Grant Allen, Letter to Herbert Spencer, 1886, in "Grant Allen, A
Memoir," by Edward Clodd.
In our society, established upon a very rigorous idea of
property, the position of the poor man is horrible; he has literally
no place under the sun. There are no flowers, no shade, no grass but
for him who possesses the earth. In the East these are the gifts of
God, which belong to no man. The proprietor has but a slender
privilege; nature is the patrimony of all.
Third Fisherman: Master, I marvel how the fishes live in the sea.
First Fisherman: Why, as men do a land. The great ones eat up the
little ones. I can compare our rich misers to nothing so fitly as to
a whale , 'a plays and tumbles, driving the poor fry before him, and
at last devours them all at a mouthful; such whales have I heard on
o' the land, who never leave gaping till they have swallowed the
whole parish, church, steeple, bells and all. . . .
Third Fisherman: If the good King Simonides were of my mind, he
would purge the land of these drones that rob the bee of her honey.
—Shakspere, "Pericles, Prince of Tyre," Act II, Scene 1.
An ebay alert for the Crosby "Earth-for-All Calendar" -- which I've had for many years -- finally showed a copy of it (almost 2 years after I got a scan of a copy). But I'll post it here in case a reader is interested.
Oh, you queens, you queens! Among the hills and happy greenwood
of this land of yours, shall the foxes have holes, and the birds of
the air have nests; and in the cities shall the stones cry out
against you, that they are the only pillows where the Son of Man can
lay his head?
—Ruskin, "Sesame and Lilies," "Queens' Gardens," Sec. 95.
But for this, I say,
And but for selfish getting of the land,
And beggarly entailing it, we two,
Today well fed, well grown, well dressed, well read,
We might have been two horny-handed boors,—
Lean, clumsy, ignorant, and ragged boors,—
Planning for moonlight nights a poaching scheme,
Or soiling our dull souls and consciences
With plans for pilfering a cottage roost.
How long shall we covet and oppress, enlarge our possessions and
account that too little which was formerly enough for a nation? . .
. A bull contents himself with one meadow, and one forest is enough
for a thousand elephants; but the little body of man devours more
than all other living creatures.
—Seneca, "Morals." Translation of Walter Clode, Chapter II.
Duke of Suffolk (reading petition): What's here? "Against the
Duke of Suffolk for enclosing the commons of Hebford." How now, sir
Petitioner: Alas, sir, I am but a poor petitioner of our whole
—Shakspere, Henry VI., Second Part, Act 1, Scene 3.
The soil was given to rich and poor in common. Wherefore, O ye
rich, do you unjustly claim it for yourselves alone?
—Hildebrand, Pope Gregory the Great.
(See also March 11)
Hmmm. Googling this, it appears to be from St. Ambrose. (See December 21 for another):
Upton Sinclair, ed. (1878–1968). The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest. 1915.
The Voice of the Early Church. V.
By St. Ambrose
HOW far, O rich, do you extend your senseless avarice? Do you intend to be the sole inhabitants of the earth? Why do you drive out the fellow sharers of nature, and claim it all for yourselves? The earth was made for all, rich and poor, in common. Why do you rich claim it as your exclusive right? The soil was given to the rich and poor in common—wherefore, oh, ye rich, do you unjustly claim it for yourselves alone? Nature gave all things in common for the use of all; usurpation created private rights. Property hath no rights. The earth is the Lord’s, and we are his offspring. The pagans hold earth as property. They do blaspheme God.
Well, we've completed a year of the "Earth-for-All Calendar." (See the original explanatory post here.) There have been about 430 quotes, all pointing in the direction of the wisdom and justice of the earth being for ALL.
Ernest Crosby, after publishing the book, turned up an additional month's worth of quotes, which I will publish as Undecimber (with honors to my Latin teachers, Mrs. Yost, Miss Deitz, Mr. Ferry and Miss Basehore! My source for the thirteenth month is the July 15, 1902, edition of The Single Tax Review.
The soil of all countries belongs evermore in a very considerable
degree to the Almighty Maker.
— THOMAS CARLYLE, Past and
Present, Book III., Chap. 8
As He who first founded the earth was then the true proprietor of
it, so He still remains, and though He hath given it to the children
of men, so that multitudes of people have had their sustenance from
it while they continued here, yet He hath never alienated it, but
His right is as good as at first; nor can any apply the increase of
their possessions contrary to universal love, nor dispose of lands
in a way which they know tends to exalt some by oppressing others
without being justly chargeable with usurpation.
—JOHN WOOLMAN, A Word of
Remembrance and Caution to the Rich, (1771), Sec. X.
If, then, successive generations of men cannot have their fractional
share of the actual soil (including mines, etc.) how can the
division of the advantages of the natural earth be effected? By the
division of its annual value or rent; that is, by making the rent of
the soil the common property of the nation. That is (as the taxation
is the common property of the State), by taking the whole of the
taxes out of the rents of the soil, and thereby abolishing all other
kinds of taxation whatever. And thus all industry would be
absolutely emancipated from every burden.
— PATRICK EDWARD DOVE, Theory of
Human Progression (1850), Chap. III., Sec. 3.
In a letter to the President of Congress, July 22, 1782, (Robert)
Morris said that a large part of America was held by great
landowners and that a land tax would have the salutary effect of an
agrarian law without the iniquity.
— PROFESSOR WILLIAM C. SUMNER, The
Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution, Vol. II.,
Chap. 33, p. 251.
It is well known that vile and loathsome buildings, probably the
property of some opulent landowner, yield from the misery of their
inmates a far larger rent than the plots on which the most luxurious
and convenient mansions are built. Dives is clothed in purple and
fine linen and fares sumptuously every day from the crumbs which he
sweeps out of the wallet of Lazarus.
— PROFESSOR THOROLD ROGERS, Work
and Wages, Chap. XV., p. 426.
The land question . . . means hunger, thirst, nakedness, notice to
quit, labor spent in vain, the toil of years seized upon, the
breaking up of homes, the miseries, sicknesses, deaths of parents,
children, wives; the despair and wildness which spring up in the
hearts of the poor, when legal force, like a sharp harrow, goes over
the most sensitive and vital right of mankind. All this is contained
in the land question.
— CARDINAL MANNING, Letter to Earl
Grey (1868), Miscellanies, Vol. I.; p. 251
Millions of human creatures are housed worse than the cattle and
horses of many a lord or squire. Nearly, a million of the London
poor need re-housing; the medical authority has reported against
141,000 houses as insanitary, in which the poor are huddled
together, in numbers varying from four to twelve and more in a
single room. What delicacy, modesty or self-respect can be expected
in men and women whose bodies are so shamefully packed together?
— CARDINAL VAUGHAN, Inaugural
Address to the Annual Conference of the Catholic Truth Society at
Stockport, published in the St. Vincent de Paul Quarterly, New
York, November, 1892, p 286.
"Yes, ah yes, there is frightful misery in the world," answered
Gabriel tenderly and sadly. "Yes, many of the poor, cut off
from all joy, all hope, are cold and hungry and in want of shelter
and raiment, in the midst of the immense riches which the Creator
has provided, not for the happiness of a few, but for the happiness
of all, for his wish was that they should be equitably divided — but
a few have acquired the common inheritance by fraud and violence."
— EUGENE SUE, The Wandering Jew,
Part XVI., Chap. 34.
Look hence, ye wretched ones, upon those blessed fields ye now flit
through as thralls, as aliens. Free shall ye wander there, free from
the yoke of the living, free from the chains of the dead. What
Nature made, what men have tilled and turned into a fruitful garden,
belongs to men, the needy,
and none shall come and say, "To me
alone belongs all this; ye are but guests I tolerate so long
as I may please, and they shall yield me tribute, guests I drive
forth when so inclined. To me belongs
what Nature made, what Man has wrought, and the living needs."
Away with that lie; to Need alone
belongs what satisfies it, and such is offered in abundance
by Nature and your own strong arm.
— RICHARD WAGNER, The Revolution,
Prose Works, Vol. VIII., Chap. 14, p. 235. (Translation of
W. A. Ellis.)
God has ordered all things to be produced, so that there should be
food in common to all, and that the earth should be a common
possession to all. Nature therefore has produced a common right for
all, but greed has made it a right for a few.
— ST. AMBROSE, On the Duties of
the Clergy (A. D. 391), Chap. XXVIII., Sec. 132. Nicene and
Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X., p. 23.
The Creator has made ample provision for all men in the storehouse
of nature and in the faculties and powers of man. To do God's will,
we must make room at the Father's table for all His children.
— FATHER EDWARD McGLYNN, Lecture
on the Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man.
The ground was in common and no part of it was the permanent
property of any man in particular; yet whoever was in occupation of
any determined spot of it, for rest, for shade or the like, acquired
for the time a sort of ownership, from which it would have been
unjust and contrary to the law of nature to have driven him by
force; but the instant that he quitted the use or occupation of it
another might seize it without injustice.
— SIR WILLIAM BLACKSTONE,
Commentaries, Book II., Chap. I, p. 3.
I stumbled across an excerpt from this in The American Cooperator, and when I couldn't find the material in any of George's other books, I went looking for the source, an 1887 book with chapters by 16 authors.
Enjoy! (It prints out as about 9 pages, if you're so inclined)
THE HISTORY, PURPOSE AND
POSSIBILITIES OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS
IN EUROPE AND AMERICA; GUILDS, TRADES-
UNIONS, AND KNIGHTS OF LABOR; WAGES AND PROFITS;
HOURS OF LABOR; FUNCTIONS OF CAPITAL; CHINESE LABOR:
COMPETITION; ARBITRATION; PROFIT-SHARING AND
CO-OPERATION; PRINCIPLES OF THE KNIGHTS OF
LABOR; MORAL AND EDUCATIONAL AS-
PECTS OF THE LABOR QUESTION.
EDITED BY GEORGE E. McNEILL,
First Deputy of Mass. Bureau of Statistics of Labor; Sec.-Treas. of D. A. 30, Knights of Labor.
ASSOCIATE AUTHORS: TERENCE V. POWDERLY, G. M. W., K. of L.; DR. EDMUND J. JAMES, University of Pennsylvania; HON. JOHN J. O'NEILL, of Missouri;
HON. J. M. FARQUHAR, of New York; HON. ROBERT HOWARD, of Massachusetts; HENRY GEORGE, of New York;
ADOLPH STRASSER, Pres. Cigar Makers' Union; JOHN JARRETT, of
Pennsylvania; REV. R. HEBER NEWTON, of New York; F K. FOSTER, of
Massachusetts; P. M. ARTHUR, Chief Engineer Locomotive Brotherhood; W.
W. STONE and W. W. MORROW, of California; FRANKLIN H. GIDDINGS,
"Springfield Union"; JOHN McBRIDE, Secretary Coal Miners' Union;
D.J.O'DONOGHUE, of Toronto, Canada; P. J. McGUIRE, Secretary Carpenters'
NEW YORK: THE M. W. HAZEN CO.
Copyright 1886, by
A M. BRIDGMAN & CO.
CHAPTER XXIII. THE LAND QUESTION.
MAGNITUDE OF THE QUESTION — FIRST PRINCIPLES — THE
LAND-OWNER THE ABSOLUTE MASTER OF MEN WHO MUST LIVE ON HIS LAND — THE
ORDER OF NATURE INVERTED — EQUAL RIGHTS TO THE USE OF THE EARTH —
SELFISHNESS, THE EVIL GENIUS OF MAN — THE IRISH PEOPLE FORCED TO BEG
PERMISSION TO TILL THE SOIL — APPROPRIATION OF THE CHURCH-LANDS — LAND
IN ITSELF HAS NO VALUE — THE GREAT CAUSE OF THE UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF
WEALTH — NO HOPE FOR THE LABORER, SO LONG AS PRIVATE PROPERTY IN LAND
EXISTS — NOTHING MYSTERIOUS ABOUT THE LABOR QUESTION — THE DIFFICULTY IN
FINDING EMPLOYMENT — NATURE OFFERS FREELY TO LABOR — NATURAL MEANS OF
EMPLOYMENT MONOPOLIZED — SPECULATION IN THE BOUNTIES OF NATURE.
BENEATH all the great social questions of our time lies one of primary
and universal importance, the question of the rights of men to the use
of the earth.
The magnitude of the pecuniary interests involved, the fact that the
influential classes in all communities where private property in land
exists are interested in its maintenance, lead to a disposition to
ignore or belittle the land question: but it is impossible to give any
satisfactory explanation of the most important social phenomena without
reference to it; and the growing unrest of the masses of all civilized
countries, under conditions which they feel to be galling and unjust,
must at length lead them, as the only way of securing the rights of
labor, to turn to the land question.
To see that the land question does involve the problem of the equitable
distribution of wealth; that it lies at the root of all the vexed social
questions of our time, and is, indeed, but another name for the great
labor question in all its phases, it is only needful to revert to first
principles, and to consider the relations between men and the planet
We find ourselves on the surface of a sphere, circling through
immeasurable space. Beneath our feet, the diameter of the planet extends
for eight thousand miles; above our heads night reveals countless
points of light, which science tells us are suns, that blaze billions of
miles away. In this inconceivably vast universe, we are confined to the
surface of our sphere, as the mariner in mid-ocean is confined to the
deck of his ship. We are limited to that line where the exterior of the
planet meets the atmospheric envelope that surrounds it. We may look
beyond, but cannot pass. We are not denizens of one element, like the
fish; but while our bodies must be upheld by one element, they must be
laved in another. We live on the earth, and in the air. In the search
for minerals men are able to descend for a few thousand feet into the
earth's crust, provided communication with the surface be kept open, and
air thus supplied; and in balloons men have ascended to like distances
above the surface; but on a globe of thirty-five feet diameter, this
range would be represented by the thickness of a sheet of paper. And
though it is thus possible for man to ascend for a few thousand feet
above the surface, or to descend for a few thousand feet below it, it is
only on the surface of the earth that he can habitually live and supply
his wants; nor can he do this on all parts of the surface of the globe,
but only on that smaller part, which we call land, as distinguished
from the water, while considerable parts even of the land are
uninhabitable by him.
By constructing vessels of materials obtained from land, and
provisioning them with the produce of land, it is true that man is able
to traverse the fluid-surface of the globe; yet he is none the less
dependent upon land. If the land of the globe were again to be
submerged, human life could not long be maintained on the best-appointed
Man, in short, is a land-animal. Physically considered, he is as much a
product of land as is the tree. His body, composed of materials drawn
from land, can only be maintained by nutriment furnished by land; and
all the processes by which he secures food, clothing and shelter consist
but in the working up of land or the products of land. Labor is
possible only on condition of access to land, and all human production
is but the union of land and labor, the transportation or transformation
of previously existing matter into places or forms suited to the
satisfaction of man's needs.
Land, being thus indispensable to man, the most important of social
adjustments is that which fixes the relations between men with regard to
that element. Where all are accorded equal rights to the use of the
earth, no one needs ask another to give him employment, and no one can
stand in fear of being deprived of the opportunity to make, a living. In
such a community, there could be no "labor question." There could be
neither degrading poverty nor demoralizing wealth. And the personal
independence arising from such a condition of equality, in respect to
the ability to get a living, must give character to all social and
On the other hand, inequality of privilege in the use of the earth must
beget inequality of wealth and power, must divide men into those who can
command and those who are forced to serve. The rewards which nature
yields to labor no longer go to the laborers in proportion to industry
and skill; but a privileged class are enabled to live without labor by
compelling a disinherited class to give up some part of their earnings
for permission to live and work. Thus the order of nature is inverted,
those who do no work become rich, and "workingman" becomes synonymous,
with "poor man." Material progress tends to monstrous wealth on one
side, and abject poverty on the other; and society is differentiated
into masters and servants, rulers and ruled.
If one man were permitted to claim the land of the world as his
individual property, he would be the absolute master of all humanity.
All the rest of mankind could live only by his permission, and under
such conditions as he chose to prescribe. So, if one man be permitted to
treat as his own the land of any country, he becomes the absolute
sovereign of its people. Or, if the land of a country be made the
property of a class, a ruling aristocracy is created, who soon begin to
regard themselves, and to be regarded, as of nobler blood and superior
rights. That "God will think twice before he damns people of quality,"
is the natural feeling of those who are taught to believe that the land
on which all must live is legitimately their private property.